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Mesa is a city in Maricopa County, in the U.S. state of Arizona. It is a suburb located about 20 miles (32 km) east of Phoenix in the East Valley section of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. It is bordered by Tempe on the west, the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community on the north, Chandler and Gilbert on the south along with Queen Creek, and Apache Junction on the east.

Mesa is the largest suburban city by population in the United States, the third-largest city in Arizona after Phoenix and Tucson, the 35th-largest city overall in the US, and the largest city that is not a county seat. The city is home to 518,012 people as of 2019 according to the Census Bureau, which makes it more populous than major cities such as Minneapolis, St. Louis, or Miami. Mesa is home to numerous higher education facilities including the Polytechnic campus of Arizona State University. It is also home to the largest relief airport in the Phoenix area, Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport, which is located in the southeastern corner of the city.

The history of Mesa dates back at least 2,000 years to the arrival of the Hohokam people. The Hohokam, whose name means "All Used Up" or "The Departed Ones", built the original canal system. The canals were the largest and most sophisticated in the prehistoric New World. Some were up to 90 feet (27 m) wide and 10 feet (3.0 m) deep at their head gates, extending for as far as 16 miles (26 km) across the desert. By A.D. 1100 water could be delivered to an area over 110,000 acres (450 km2), transforming the Sonoran Desert into an agricultural oasis. By A.D. 1450, the Hohokam had constructed hundreds of miles of canals many of which are still in use today.

After the disappearance of the Hohokam and before the arrival of the early settlers little is known, as explorers did not venture into this area. By the late 19th century near present-day Mesa, U.S. Army troops relocated the Apache, opening the way for settlement.

Mormon pioneer Daniel Webster Jones, with Henry Clay Rogers as his right-hand man, left St. George, Utah in March 1877. Jones had been asked by Mormon officials to direct a party of people in establishing a settlement in Arizona. They traveled south and settled on the north side of the present Mesa area. This settlement was initially known as Fort Utah and later as Jonesville. It was located about where Lehi Road is now. In 1883 it was named Lehi at the suggestion of Brigham Young, Jr.

About this same time, another group dubbed the First Mesa Company arrived from Utah and Idaho. Their leaders were named Francis Martin Pomeroy, Charles Crismon, George Warren Sirrine and Charles I. Robson. Rather than accepting an invitation to settle at Jones' Lehi settlement, they moved up onto the mesa that serves as the city's namesake. They dug irrigation canals and used some of the original Hohokam canals. By April 1878, water was flowing through them. The Second Mesa Company arrived in 1879 and settled to the west of the First Mesa Company because of more available farmland. This settlement was called originally called Alma and later Stringtown. It was located about where Alma School Road is now.

On July 17, 1878, Mesa City was registered as a 1-square-mile (2.6 km2) townsite. The first school was built in 1879. In 1883, Mesa City was incorporated with a population of 300 people. Dr. A. J. Chandler, who would later go on to found the city of Chandler, worked on widening the Mesa Canal in 1895 to allow for enough flow to build a power plant. In 1917, the city of Mesa purchased this utility company. The revenues from the company provided enough for capital expenditures until the 1960s. During the Great Depression, WPA funds provided paved streets, a new hospital, a new town hall and a library.

After the founding of the city the elected official that most impacted the municipality was George Nicholas Goodman. He was mayor 5 different times in parts of 3 different decade (1938–1942, 1946–1948, 1952–1956) (see: List of mayors of Mesa, Arizona). As mayor he was directly involved in the process of acquiring land for both Falcon Field and Williams Field.

With the opening of Falcon Field and Williams Field in the early 1940s, more military personnel began to move into the Mesa area. With the advent of air conditioning and the rise of tourism, population growth exploded in Mesa as well as the rest of the Phoenix area. Industry—especially early aerospace companies—grew in the 1950s and 1960s. As late as 1960, half of the residents of Mesa made a living with agriculture, but this has declined substantially as Mesa's suburban growth continued on track with the rest of the Phoenix metro area.

Due to Mesa's extremely long east to west travel distance, in excess of 18 miles (29 km) and large land area 133.13 square miles (344.8 km2), locations in Mesa are often referred to as residing within either Mesa or East Mesa.

Mesa employs a grid system for street numbering that is different from that used in Phoenix and other portions of the metropolitan area. Center Street, running north to south, bisects Mesa into eastern and western halves and serves as the east and west numbering point of origin within Mesa. Streets west of Center St., such as W. University Drive or W. Main St. are considered to be in West Mesa, whereas streets east of Center St., such as E. University or E. Main St., are considered to be in East Mesa.

Mesa Drive, running north to south and bisecting Mesa into east and west sections, is located 0.5 miles (800 m) east of Center Street, and serves as the zip code boundary between the 85281, 85201, 85202, and 85210 zip codes of Western Mesa and the 85203, 85204, 85205, 85206, 85207, 85208, 85209, 85212, 85213, 85215, 85220, and 85242 zip codes of Eastern Mesa.

Country Club Drive, running north to south and bisecting Mesa into east and west sections, is located 0.5 miles (800 m) west of Center St, and serves as the jurisdictional boundary between Arizona's 5th and 6th congressional districts. Note that this same road (as Arizona Avenue) serves as the official east and west numbering point of origin within the city of Chandler, located south of Mesa.

Climate
Located in the Sonoran Desert, Mesa has a hot desert climate (K?ppen: BWh), with mild winters and very hot summers. The hottest month is July, with an average high of 106 °F (41 °C) and an average low of 77 °F (25 °C). The coldest month is December, with an average high of 67 °F (19 °C) and an average low of 40 °F (4 °C).

According to the 2010 Census, the racial composition of Mesa was as follows:

White: 83.8% (Non-Hispanic Whites: 62.6%)
Hispanic or Latino (of any race): 27.4%
Black or African American: 3.7%
Two or more races: 3.1%
Native American: 2.3%
Asian: 2.0%
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 0.4%
As of the census of 2010, there were 439,041 people, 146,643 households, and 99,863 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,171.3 people per square mile (1,224.4/km2). There were 175,701 housing units at an average density of 1,405.7 per square mile (542.8/km2).

The racial make-up of the city was 81.6% White, 2.4% Black or African American, 2.2% Native American, 2.00% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 9.3% from other races, and 1.30% from two or more races. 24.0% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 146,643 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.7% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.9% were non-families. 24.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.20.

The age distribution was 27.3% under 18, 11.2% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 18.4% from 45 to 64, and 13.3% who were 65 or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $42,817, and the median income for a family was $49,232. Males had a median income of $35,960 versus $27,005 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,601. About 6.2% of families and 8.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.7% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over.

Mesa Arizona Temple, a large LDS temple, where an Easter Pageant is held every spring (due to extensive renovations the Easter Pageant will not be held until at least 2020)
HoHoKam Park of the Cactus League, home of the Oakland Athletics and former home of the Chicago Cubs during spring training, the WAC Baseball Tournament and former summer home to the now defunct Mesa Miners professional baseball team of the Golden Baseball League
Sloan Park, opened in 2014 as the new Cactus League spring training home of the Chicago Cubs
Mesa Arts Center
Mesa Amphitheater
Museums
i.d.e.a. Museum formerly Arizona Museum for Youth
Commemorative Air Force Arizona Wing Aircraft Museum, located at Falcon Field – B-17 Sentimental Journey
Mesa Contemporary Arts Museum, Mesa Arts Center
Mesa Historical Museum
Arizona Museum of Natural History
Archeological sites
Mesa Grande Ruins
Park of the Canals
Public libraries
Main Library (MN)
Dobson Ranch Branch (DR)
Mesa Express Library (MEL)
Red Mountain Branch (RM)
Water parks
Golfland Sunsplash waterpark on U.S. 60
The only highrise in Mesa is the Bank of America (formerly Western Savings) building near Fiesta Mall.
Organ Stop Pizza, containing the world's largest Wurlitzer organ
Historic properties in Mesa
Main article: List of historic properties in Mesa, Arizona
Numerous properties in the city are considered to be historical and have been included either in the National Register of Historic Places or the listings of the Mesa Historic Properties.

Parks and recreation
Mesa has over 2,280 acres of parkland in the city limits. Its largest is Red Mountain Park which spans 1,146 acres. It includes a lake, playgrounds, a basketball court and a cement volleyball court.

Golf
Mesa is home to numerous championship golf courses, including the original course in town, Mesa Country Club. This course was founded in the late 1940s by the original leaders of the town, and "Country Club Drive", the most prominent street in Mesa, was at one point the modest entrance to the club.

West Mesa
Main articles: Fiesta Mall and Mesa Riverview
The Fiesta Mall is located in West Mesa, and owned by Westcor. Its anchors are Sears and Best Buy. It is located near several shopping centers, Mesa's Bank of America, and other retail stores, banks, and restaurants. An expansion of the mall has been planned.

Mesa Riverview is a new outdoor destination retail center in the northwestern corner of the city, near Loop 202 and Dobson Road. At build-out the center will include 1,300,000 square feet (120,000 m2) of retail space. Its anchors include Bass Pro Shops, Cinemark Theaters, Wal-Mart, and Home Depot.

East Mesa
Located in East Mesa is Superstition Springs Business Park. It includes the Superstition Springs Center, a shopping mall owned by Macerich. It features an outdoor amphitheatre and fountain which convert to a stage. Anchor stores at the mall are Dillard's, JCPenney, and Macy's. Mission Community Church, previously known as Superstition Springs Community Church, was initially named after this business park.

Education
Almost all of the city of Mesa is served by public schools operated by Mesa Public Schools; however, a small southern portion is served by the Gilbert Public Schools and the Queen Creek Unified School District, and a small western portion is served by the Tempe Elementary School District and the Tempe Union High School District.

Pilgrim Lutheran School is a Christian Pre-K-8 school of the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod in Mesa.

Mesa is home to Mesa Community College, the largest of the Maricopa Community Colleges, which enrolls over 24,000 full and part-time students. The Polytechnic campus of Arizona State University lies in southeast Mesa. This satellite campus enrolls over 6,000 undergraduate and graduate students in scientific and engineering fields. A. T. Still University operates an Osteopathic Medical School in Mesa. The aviation school CAE Global Academy Phoenix is located in Mesa.

After launching a higher education initiative in 2012, Mesa became home to branch campuses of five private, liberal arts institutions: Albright College, Westminster College, Benedictine University, Upper Iowa University and Wilkes University. Two have since left (Albright College and Westminster College), while a third, Wilkes University, recently announced it would move entirely online.

Transportation

Mesa City Hall in downtown Mesa
Main article: Metropolitan Phoenix Freeways
Several area freeways serve the Mesa area, such as U.S. Route 60, locally known as the Superstition Freeway, which runs between Apache Junction and Phoenix. It is also served by SR 87 and bypass loops Loop 101, which skirts the western city limits as the Price Freeway, and Loop 202, which bypasses the city on the north and east. The main east-west arterial road in Mesa is Main Street (former US 60/70/80/89), serving Downtown Mesa. The primary north-south arterials include Country Club Drive, Gilbert Road, and Power Road.

Public transportation in Mesa is provided by Valley Metro via bus and light rail (Valley Metro Rail). The light rail section in Mesa spans about four miles from Sycamore/Main St in the west of the city, through downtown to Mesa Dr/Main St. Until July 2008, Mesa was the largest U.S. city with no public transit service on Sundays, but now has Sunday service available on Routes 40-Apache/Main, 61-Southern, 96-Dobson, 108-Elliot, 112-Country Club/Arizona, 156-Chandler/Williams Field, and 184-Power.

Air service in the city is provided by two airports. Falcon Field, located in the northeastern part of the area, was established as a training field for British RAF pilots during World War II and was transferred to the city at the end of the war. Falcon Field has 605 aircraft based there. Boeing builds the AH-64 Apache attack helicopter at a facility adjoining Falcon Field. Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport is located in the far southeastern area of the city, and provides alternate but limited air service when compared to Sky Harbor International Airport. Phoenix-Mesa Gateway was formerly Williams Gateway Airport, and before that, Williams Air Force Base, which closed in 1993. Williams Gateway was announced as a new Focus City for Allegiant Air. Service started October 25, 2007.

Notable people
Philip Brailsford, police officer who executed Daniel Shaver in 2016 and was found not guilty by a jury
Jim Adkins, musician in the band from Mesa, Jimmy Eat World
Travis Alexander – murder victim
Beau Allred – professional baseball pitcher
Janice Merrill Allred – author
Helen Andelin – author
Authority Zero – punk rock band
John Beck – professional football player
Mike Brown – professional basketball coach
Marcus Brunson – professional sprinter
Austin Gibbs – musician
George Nicholas Goodman a pharmacist who was the mayor of Mesa for 5 different 2-year terms as part of 3 different decades.
Max Hall – professional football player
Mickey Hatcher – professional baseball player
Carl Hayden – Arizona senator, and its first representative in the House; died in Mesa on January 25, 1972
Todd Heap – professional football player
Jamar Hunt – professional football player
Autumn Hurlbert – actress
Misty Hyman – Olympic gold medalist in swimming
Julie Ertz – world champion soccer player
Rudy Lavik – college basketball coach
Mike Lee – United States Senator
Albie Lopez – professional baseball player
Brad Mills – professional baseball pitcher
Carolyn Morris – professional baseball player (A.A.G.P.B.L.)
Buck Owens – singer, member of the Country Music Hall of Fame
John Jacob Rhodes – politician, House Minority Leader of the U.S. House of Representatives
John Jacob Rhodes III – politician, former member of the U.S. House of Representatives
Larry Schweikart – author
Jake Shears – lead male singer for the pop band Scissor Sisters
Jack Taylor – mayor of Mesa from 1966 to 1972; thereafter a member, consecutively, of both houses of the Arizona State Legislature; interred at Mesa City Cemetery
Lynn Toler – judge for Divorce Court
Kelly Townsend – Arizona State Representative, Legislative District 16 (including parts of East Mesa)
Don Taylor Udall – state legislator and judge
Brooke White – singer-songwriter and fifth place finalist on the seventh season of American Idol
Danny White – professional football player, Arizona Athlete of the Century (20th)
Wilford "Whizzer" White – professional football player
Roger L. Worsley – educator, formerly with Mesa High School and Mesa Community College
Tyson Apostol – reality television star (Winner of Survivor: Blood vs. Water; Contestant on Survivor: Tocantins, Survivor: Heroes vs. Villains, & Survivor Winners at War)
Sister cities
Mesa has five sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International:

Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada
Caraz, Peru
Guaymas, Mexico
Kaiping, Guangdong, China
Upper Hutt, New Zealand
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